Gheorghe Sarau


articol despre limba rromani

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe aprilie 24, 2011

                             Ce vorbim? Astea chiar sunt vorbe “ţigăneşti”?

Saste – veste?

În mai toate limbile întâlnim expresii a căror semnificaţie iniţială nu poate fi explicată, ele însă fiind utilizate de vorbitori în continuare. Aşa, de pildă, unor expresii româneşti li s-au putut descifra logica sau contextul iniţial în care au apărut (v. „a auzi câinii în Giurgiu”, „ai lu’ peşte / ai lu’ peştii”, ba chiar şi varianta – cu „remorcă stilistică”- „ ai lu’ peşte sărat”), altora li s-au găsit două explicaţii (v. „La Caracal, unde s-a răsturnat carul cu proşti!”), în cazul unor expresii ori sintagme s-au identificat mai multe soluţii, iar în cele mai multe cazuri expresiile sunt folosite cu exactitate, în context potrivit, dar originea lor nu îi este cunoscută vorbitorului şi, de cele mai multe ori, el nici nu este preocupat de acest aspect.

O expresie ce circulă în limba rromani, ca formulă de salut, este saste – veste? (la pl.), cu forme specializate pentru masculin, singular („sasto-vesto?”) şi pentru feminin, singular („sasti-vesti”?). La un prim impuls, vorbitorul este îndreptăţit să traducă prin „sănătoşi-voioşi?”, respectiv prin „sănătos-voios” (m., sg.) şi „sănătoasă-voioasă” (f., sg.).

Dar acestea sunt sensurile evoluate ale cuvintelor, căci sensurile lor de bază funcţionează, evident, cu alte accepţiuni, de multe ori vorbitorul nefăcând nicio legătură între acestea: sasto (adj., m., sg.) „întreg, tot” – ca prim sens -, iar pentru că un om, să spunem, este „întreg”, înseamnă că el este şi „sănătos”, similar, pentru formele de f., sg. „sasti” („întreagă, toată”, prin extindere şi „sănătoasă”) şi de m., f., pl.  „saste” (prin generalizare, „întregi, toţi”, dar, ca al doilea sens şi „sănătoşi”).

Şi al doilea termen din sintagma analizată în cele trei ipostaze, anume „vesto”, „vesti”, „veste”, se comportă, analog, înregistrând ca sens circulant mai extins înţelesurile de „voios” (sasto), „voioasă” (sasti), „voioşi” şi, prin generalizare, şi „voioase” (saste). De menţionat că generalizarea se produce şi în alte situaţii (v. ćhave „băieţi, flăcăi”, dar şi „copii” în general – fără a se face deosebirea că printre băieţi sunt şi fete – sau bakre echivalat prin „oi” şi nu, neapărat, prin forma de bază, „berbeci” (substantiv de gen masculin, la pl.).

Dar şi aici, vorbitorul „uită” sensul de bază pentru vesto, vesti, veste – anume: „liber”, „liberă”, „libere” -, limitându-se, cum s-a văzut la „vesel, voios”, „veselă, voioasă”, „veseli / voioşi; „vesele, voioase”.

Cum se ştie, astfel de sensuri „evoluate” –ajunse în conotaţie -, mai „norocoase” decât sensurile de bază, din denotaţie, de la care au pornit – devin mai cunoscute decât cele de bază. A se vedea, de ex., baxtalo „norocos” – ca sens 1, de bază -, respectiv „fericit” – ca sens 2, dar mult mai extins în înţeles şi în echivalări.

Prin urmare, sasto-vesto?, sasti-vesti? şi saste-veste? cunosc, pe lângă echivalentele cele mai uzitate – „sănătos-voios?”, „sănătoasă-voioasă?”, „sănătoşi-voioşi?/ „sănătoase-voioase?”- şi sensurile iniţiale, anume: „întreg şi liber?”, „întreagă şi liberă?”, „întregi şi liberi / libere?”. De bună seamă că ultima formă, cea de plural, trebuie să fie responsabilă pentru o astfel de evoluţie a sensului celor două adjective din cuvântul compus saste – veste, devenit, ulterior, expresie, formulă de salut.

În mod normal, s-ar recurge la forme atestate în limbă, dar – în situaţia specială a limbii rromani, anume că s-a scris destul de târziu în această limbă – ele lipsesc. Ne rămâne doar să recurgem la logica înnobilării de sens a cuvintelor dintr-o în limbă. Şi, în felul acesta, dacă ne întoarcem la vremea din proximitatea dezrobirii, este de presupus că, în momentul în care familiile („pâlcurile”, „formaţiunile”, „cetele”) de rromi dezrobiţi se întâlneau, întrebarea firească era „Saste, veste?”, cu sensul prim al acestor doi termeni, anume „[Sunteţi] toţi, întregi (în efectiv complet) – liberi (în stare liberă)”, ca apoi construcţia să devină „Sănătoşi – voioşi?”, adică formula atât de cunoscută nouă astăzi, Saste-veste?

24 ianuarie 2010                                          prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Sarău

(aparut in dec. 2010, in Romanothan, editor: Vasile Ionescu)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fotografii la ed. a II-a a Concursului national de creatie in limba rromani, Targu Mures – Adamus, Laureatii

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe februarie 22, 2014

Fotografii la ed. a II-a a Concursului national de creatie in limba rromani, Targu Mures - Adamus, Laureatii

Fotografii de la a doua editie a Concursului national de creatie in limba rromani, 2013, Targu Mures – Adamus

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe februarie 22, 2014

Fotografii de la a doua editie a Concursului national de creatie in limba rromani, 2013, Targu Mures - Adamus

Gheorghe Sarau, Aida Moga (Atat cat stim), Bucuresti: Editura Sigma, 2013, 284 p. + 55 fotografii

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe decembrie 17, 2013

Dragi de toti,

 

A aparut, in 12.XII. 2013, la Editura Sigma din Bucuresti, cartea dedicata Aidei Moga, ilustra cantareata din a doua generatie de muzica usoara romaneasca, artista de revista intre 1955 – 1969. Lucrarea este elaborata de Gheorghe Sarau si cuprinde 284 p., 55 fotografii de familie. Cartea costa 34 lei si se poate obtine de la Libraria Editurii Sigma (strada Luigi Cazavilan nr. 12, la intersectie cu str. G-ral Berthelot; urcand dinspre Stirbei pe strada Putu cu plopi (unde este casa lui Constantin Tanase), sau tot din Stirbei Voda, din fata Palatului Stirbei, peste strada, spre Luigi Cazavilan si intersectia cu G-ral Bethelot).
Aida Moga, prin anii ‘60

Nascuta la Timisoara, in 12 ianuarie 1926, pe numele Aida Radulescu, Aida Moga avea sa moara in 27 iulie 2001, la Bucuresti. Sora sa, Lavinia Radulescu, de asemenea cantareata de muzica usoara (cunoscuta ca Lavinia Slaveanu), se nascuse la 22 dec. 1923.
Cele doua surori debuteaza, ca liceene, in calitate de compozitoare, Radio Romania transmitandu-le doua compozitii la vremea aceea.
Aida Radulescu se casatoreste, mai intai, cu Eugen Goldis (directorul de succes al firmelor de incaltaminte BATA si DRATA, cu care a avut-o pe Dana Adriana), apoi se casatoreste cu procurorul militar – Alexandru Sidor (ramanand vaduva), dupa care – cu actorul Dorin Moga (cinci ani), ca apoi, intre 1958-1977 sa fie casatorita cu renumitul maestru emerit al sportului (rugbi), Titi Ionescu. Cu acesta, Aida Moga are o fiica, Vanda Ionescu (casatorita pe numele de Winter, in Germania, din anul 1991), care ne-a ajutat mult cu fotografii, informatii si cu un capitol scris de dansa, Mama.
In prefata cartii am adresat multumiri mai multor persoane care ne-au ajutat in proceul de documentare, ca: Aurel Storin, cel care timp de o jumătate de secol a fost secretarul literar al Teatrului de Revistă „Constantin Tănase“ și care ne-a oferit, cu mare amabilitate, două dintre lucrările sale de mare importanță pentru memoria acestei instituții și pentru reperele culturale românești, în general; scenograful Dumitru Abăcioaiei, cântărețul de muzică ușoară Doru Tufiș (cu care Vanda de Winter cântase la barul „Melody“). Multumirile noastre s-au indreptat si spre taragotistul Ion Milu, inspectorul școlar Gheorghe Manda și învățătorii pensionari Dumitru Vișescu șiDumitru Drăghici – tuspatru cărășeni (tatal Aidei fiind din Crusovat, Caras Severin) –, sociologul Valentin Pepenel și avocatul Lazăr Gruneanțu, ambii de la Timișoara, diplomatul Carmen Podgorean, profesorul de limbă germană Alexandru Szepesi ș.a.
În final, se cuvine arătat că acest demers este dedicat, deopotrivă, Aidei Moga, dar și familiei sale extinse – care a reunit în timp o serie de personalități românești -, dar, credem, se constituie și într-o modestă încercare, atât cât a fost posibilă, de recompunere, fie și într-o formă fragmentară, a contextului socio-cultural din perioada comunistă, cu bunele și relele de atunci.

In atas aveti:
- o melodie interpretata de Aida Moga!
- coperta
- indicele de nume (cel de mai jos), caci am selectat unele nume de persoane si denumiri de institutii cu legatura directa ori indirecta la activitantea si viata Aidei Moga,

Va dorim lectura placuta!
Cu multumiri,
Gheorghe Sarau

Indicele de nume (selectiv)
Abacioaiei, Dumitru; Anastasiu, Dorin; Andreescu, Aurelian; Andrei, Andreea; A.R.I.A. (Agentia Romana de Impresariat Artistic); Arsinel, Alexandru; Badea, Doina; Balanuta, Leopoldina; Bals, Teodor ; Beligan, Radu; Berechet, Mihai; Besoiu, Ion; Birlic, Grigore; Birsan, Const.; Bogardo, Florin; Boxan, Mia [Maria Gheorghiu]; Braia, Mia; Bunea, George; Calboreanu, Eugenia (cas. Zicheli); Caloianu, Florica; Caragiu, Toma;Caraman –Fotea, Daniela;Caramitru, Ion;Cassian, Nina (n. sub numele Renée Annie Cassian); Cassian, Simona; Caciulescu, Horia; Calinescu, Puiu;Carja, Ion Carstea, Elena; Chiriac, Corina; Ciachir, Dan; Ciobanu, Lucretia; Ciuhandu, Smaranda; Cirjan, Constantin;Constantin, Nicu; Constantiniu, Cornel;Corneanu, Nicolae v. Nicolae (Mitropolit al Banatului);Cosmin, Luminita (Georgeta Nicolescu); Cosma, Viorel; Cosma, (Teddy) Theodor; Cosmin, Luminita; Cotabita Gabriel Cotaru, Mihaela; Craciunescu, Lia; Craciunescu, Rodica; Cristinoiu, Ion; Crisan, Mircea [numele adevarat: Mauriciu Craus / Kraus;Cupcea – v. Surorile Cupcea;Daminescu, Adrian; Dan, Sorina [numele adevarat: Sarica Saraga]; D.A.N.I.C. – Directia Arhivelor Nationale Istorice Centrale;Danovski, Oleg; Dascalescu, Camelia; De Winter, Peter; Deda, Edmond; Delmar, Florentin [Florian Milea]; Demetriad, (Honorius) Noru; Demetru, G. (DumitruGeorgescu); Dendrino,Gherase; Dichiseanu, Ion; Dinescu, Nicolae; Dinica, Gheorghe; Dinicu, Sile (Vasile); Dobrescu, Viky; Dona, Nuti; Donea, Willy; Donose, Vasile; Dorian, Florian; Dorobantu, Gabriel; Draghici, Constantin; Draghici, Dorina; Dragoi, Sabin; Elenescu, Emanuel; Falticineanu, Bitu; Felea, Aurel; Florea, Marina; Fortunescu, Madeleine; Frunzetti, Ion; Frunzetti, Nicolae; Fugaru, Cornel; Fujan, Peter; Ganea, Puiu; Gavris, Emil; Geambasu, Petre; Gheorghiu – Dej, Gheorghe; Gheorghiu, Maria v. Mia Boxan; Giroveanu, Aurel; Goldis, Adriana Dana; Goldis, Eugen Ioan; Goldis, Serban Radu; Grigorescu, Valentiu; Grigoriu, Angel; Grigoriu, Cezar; Grigoriu, George; Grozuta, Alexandru; Gusti, Petre; Hentia, Sava; Herlea, Nicolae; Hodovanschi, Rodion; Hrusciov, Nikita Sergheevici;Iancu, Misu; Ianoli, Mara (Mara Malineanu); Imre, Alex.[andru = ”Sanyi”]; Ionescu, Coman; Ionescu, Dan; Ionescu, Didi; Ionescu, Emanuel; Ionescu, Eugenia;Ionescu, Fabius; Ionescu, George; Ionescu, Ioana; Ionescu, Luigi; Ionescu, Mia; Ionescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Sandra (casatorita Ressu); Ionescu, Titi (Dumitru Mihail); Ionescu, Vanda; Iordache, Toni; Iordache, Stefan; Iordachioaie,Daniel Nouri; Iures, Marcel; Jula, Alexandru; Kardos, Stefan; Kosak, Surorile v. Surorile Kosak; Körössy, Jancy [János];Kreisky, Bruno; Lambru, Faramita; Lataretu, Maria; Lucaciu, Teodora; Luican, Ion; Lulescu, Alexandru; Malagamba, Sergiu; Marga, Gigi; Marga, Retta v. Doina Badea; Marinescu, Luky [Lucretia; “Lucky Mihaescu”];Matei, Roxana; Maurer, Ion Gheorghe; Maximilian, Mihai (Puiu); Malineanu, Henry; Mihalache, G.[eorge]; Militaru, Vasile; Mirea, Eugen; Moculescu, Horia; Moga, Aida; Moga, Dorin; Moise, Virgil; Molda, Paul Popescu [Pavel Ioan Popescu];Moldoveanu, Cezarina; Motica, Ilona; Neagrean-Brudascu, Sava; Negrin, Harry; Nicolae [Nicolae Mihail Corneanu], Mitropolit al Banatului; Nicolaescu, Iolanda, zisa “Tutu”; Nicolaescu, Sergiu; Nitescu, Nicolae; Noica, Constantin; Noreanu, Alin; Oancea, Nicolae; O.S.T.A.– Oficiul pentru Spectacole si Turnee Artistice; Pascu, Gaby; Patrichi, Cornel; Patrichi, Gina; Patrichi, Nicolae; Paunescu, Jean; Paraianu, Marin; Parau, Constantin; Paslaru, Margareta; Petrescu, Gica; Petrovici, Ion; Podgorean, Carmen; Podgoreanu, Gerry [Jerry]; Popa, Temistocle; Popescu, Aurica; Popescu, Molda Paul [Pavel Ioan Popescu]; Popescu, Stela; Presley, Elvis Aaron; Prossi,Liviu Gabriel; Radu, Ioana [Eugenia (Jana); Radulescu, Ciupi [Gheorghe Ciuperca]; Radulescu, Cornelia (Neli); Radulescu, Dem; Radulescu, Paula; Radulescu, Victor; Rautu, Leonte; Ressu, Ion; Romcescu, Adrian; Rotaru, Eugen; Rotaru, Vasile; Runceanu, Mihaela Valentina; Sachelarie, Clery; Sarau, Gheorghe; Savin, Cornelia [= Cornelia Radulescu]; Savin, Gh. Ioan; Sandulescu, Jeny;Scupra, Marina; Selassie, Haile [Haile Selassie I al Etiopiei]; Sereea, Maria; Sidor, Alexandru; Similea, Angela; Slaveanu, Lavinia (n. Radulescu, sora Aidei Moga; Socol, Ion; Solomonescu, Gelu [Virgiliu]; Spataru, Dan; Stoenescu, Nicu; Storin, Aurel; Stroe, Nae (Nicolae Stroe [Stroe Nacht]; Sukarno, Achmed (n., sub numele Kusno Sosrodihardjo); Surorile Cupcea; Surorile Kosak; Serban, Radu; Serban, Zizi [Zizi Horvat]; Serbanescu, Horia; Stefanescu Goanga, Petre; Tandin, Costica; Tapalaga, Rodica; Tanase, Constantin; Tanase, Maria;Teodosiu, Cornelia; Timis, Vasile; Tomazian, Vasile; Trio Grigoriu; Tudor, Ionel; Tudorache, Olga; Tufis, Doru; Turcu, Theodor – Doru; Udila, George; Udila, Ilie; Ursulescu, Octavian; Urziceanu, Aura; Vasile, Cristian; Vasilescu, Ion; Verea, Lissete; Veselovski, Vasile; Vicoveanca, Sofia; Vintila, Ion; Voica, Marina; Voinescu, George; Vornicu, Tudor; Vraca, George; Wüsteman, Dana v. Goldis, Adriana Dana; Zaharescu, Radu s.a.
Am revenit pe vechiul meu e-mail :sarau_2006@yahoo.com
My new address (e-mail): sarau_2006@yahoo.com
Mirri nevi adresa si i purani mirri adresa (!): sarau_2006@yahoo.com

II. Despre cartea Aida Moga, v. Interviu luat de Anca Ionescu lui Gheorghe Sarau, difuzat duminica, 16 febr. 2014 de Radio Romania Cultural.

Cantece rrome cantate de Gheorghe Sarau

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe decembrie 10, 2011

Roma’s education in Romania, Author: Gheorghe Sarau

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe octombrie 2, 2009

Prof. dr. Gheorghe Sarau

(26 May 2009)

Programmes, projects and activities performed by the Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation (MECI) for the Roma minority

I. The situation pertaining to the level of Roma pupils’ school attendance, the study of the Roma mother tongue or the study of Roma language and history

If we were to compare the current situation of the level of school attendance amongst the pupils who have assumed their Roma-identity with the situation reported 19 years ago, we would notice a 1 ½ increase as in the year 1990, in the educational system there were 109,325 Roma pupils – pre-school children and pupils in the 1st – 12th grade, while at the end of the school year 2007-2008 the number of Roma pupils had increased to 263,409. A similiar number – 260,105 Roma pupils – had been reported in the previous year, 2006-2007. As a percentage, reported to the total number of 3.2-3.4 million of pre-school children, pupils and young people from the undegraduate system, the segment of pre-schoolers, pupils and high-school students who have freely assumed their Roma identity is situated between 8.23% and 8.13%, respectively between 7.65% and 7.28%.

On the other hand, if we compare the data reported in 1990 with those reported in the previous school years as far as the Romani language and literature classes, respectively the history and traditions of Roma people or full studies in the Romani mother togue, we would notice a continual increase. We should notice the fact that while in the school year 1992-1993, when the Romani language became a subject for 1st through 4th grades, there only 368 Roma children studying the Romani language, after the first half of the period – the school year 1998-1999 – the number of these children had reached almost 2,000, while in March 2001 the number had exceeded 11,000.

However, now the number of Roma pupils who study the Roma national curriculum (which is made up of 3-4 weekly Romani language and literature classes at the level of 1st through 12th grades, respectively courses on the Roma history and traditions, which are stipulated for the 6th and the 7thwho only study in the Romani language has increased from 50 pupils, as reported in 1990, to 26,805 – as reported in the school year 2007-2008 (of these 320 were only studying in their mother tongue in kindergartens and in the elementary school system), which means an incredible increase – the number has increased 536 times. grade) or

Reported to the number of Roma pupils who have assumed their identity and who go to school, we notice that 9.81% (in the school year 2006-2007) and 10.71% (in the school year 2007-2008) of the Roma pupils choose in addition, to attend Roma language and history classes or to fully study in their Romani mother tongue.

Table – Schooling of Roma children, compared to the teaching of Roma language and history between 1990 and 2008

School year

No. of Roma pupils who have assumed their Roma identity

No. of Roma pupils who have studied the Roma language and/or the Roma history and traditions or who have fully studied in the Romani language

2007-2008

263, 409

26,805, of which 320 have fully studied in their Romani mother tongue

2006-2007

260, 105

25,525, of which 140 have fully studied in their Romani mother tongue

2005-2006

243,008

24, 903

2004-2005

220,000

24,129

2003-2004

183,176

20,528

2002-2003

158,128

15,708

1989-1990

109,325

50

II. The typology of the study and cultivation of the Romani mother tongue in the Romanian educational system

As it is well-known, in Romania, Roma parents can choose one of the following for their children:

1. education with the classes taught in Romanian or Hungarian, depending on the local tradition and the Roma family in question. Within this type of education, parents may require for their children to additionally have 3-4 weekly courses on their Romani language and literature and/or Roma history and traditions.

2. education taught fully in the Romani language (with 4 weekly lessons on Romanian language, which are mandatory)

We will present below a series of strategic target that had the purpose to develop the study of the Romani mother tongue in the school system and outside the school system.

a. The continual development of the study of the Romani mother tongue in the school system

  • 3-4 weekly courses / class in more than 260 schools in 40 counties.

At the end of the school year 2007-2008, 26,805 Roma pupils have attended classes on Roma language and history taught by 440 Roma teachers and in the year 2006-2007 there were 25,525 students, which represented 10% of the number of students who had assumed their identity and who attended school (kindergarten through the 12th grade), who attended similar classes.

  • School units where elementary education (1st through 4th grade) is fully taught in Romani language:

This type of education was initiated in the school year 2001-2002 at School no. 12 Măguri – Lugoj, of Timiş County; then, starting with the school year 2007-2008 a 1st class was also organized within School no. 1 „Dr. Aurel Vlad”, Orăştie, of Hunedoara County, and starting with the following year, 2008-2009, the system extended in the same county at School no. 1 Lupeni and in other school units, such as: the School of Ineu (Bihor County), School no. 9 „Anton Pann”. Now, in the 5 school units there are 380 Roma pupils who are registered in the monolingual education in Romani language.

Kindergartens that teach Romani (with bilingual teaching methods, Romani – Romanian), at School of Săruleşti of Călăraşi County (1 group, a project that was initiated by „Amare Rromentza and UNICEF in 2005), at School no. 12 Măguri – Lugoj of Timişoara County (1 group, since 2007), in  Bacău County (3 groups, since 2007, at the School „Domniţa Maria” of Bacău, at School no. 1 Dărmăneşti and at School of Gutinaş, Ştefan cel Mare village), at the “10 Prăjini”Lunca Cetăţuii” School – Zanea, “Crucea” School (Iaşi County), at the School Ineu (Bihor  (County) and at the Normal-schedule kindergarten of Almaşu Sălaj County) – 180 children. School, Ciurea – “

  • Partial teaching in Romani language for pupils in the 5th – 8th grade (the lower secondary education system) Since the school year 2005-2006, partial studying in the Romani language has begun at the level of 5th – 8th graders; the system was gradually changed towards the Romani monolingual one in School No. 12 Măguri, Lugoj, TM (at present there are 5th graders, 6th graders and 7th graders, a total of 60 pupils. The 7th graders (school year 2008-2009) have taken the unique papers in Romani, the Mathematics papers and the paper written in Romani, together with 5 other minorities: Hungarian, German, Serbian, Slovakian and Ukrainian.

b. The continual development of the study of the Romani mother tongue in the academic system (University)

  • continuation of the study of the Romani language, as a main section A, at the Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures within the University of Bucharest (the first optional course was created in 1992, the first section B – indianistics – Romani and Hindi – was created in 1997, the first section B Romani was created in 1998, and starting with 2005, an independent section was created, who had the main specialty A and where some 10-20 Roma and non-Roma students attended the courses, including European students who had come with Erasmus scholarships or within their own academic programmes).

  • continuation of the partial study of the Romani language and literature at the Univeristy of Bucharest and the UBB of Cluj Napoca, at the Faculty of Psychology – Pedagogy, for the groups of Roma students, who are the future teachers for primary and pre-school education (CREDIS – University of Bucharest (the program took place between 2000 and 2008 and due to this programme, more than 250 Roma graduates have finished their studies). Besides all these, at the UBB of Cluj Napoca, in the current sophomore and junior groups (2008-2009), there are 58 other Roma students, who study the pedagogy of elementary and pre-school education (PPP).

c. The continual development of the school instruments used for teaching Roma language and history (school programmes and manuals, educational materials used in extra-curricular activities):

  • ensuring the curricula for the Romani language (for 1st through 12th

    grade), for Romani history and

traditions (6th – 7th grade), with Roma authors, including for their revision in 2009;

  • the re-publishing and financing new schoolbooks for Romani language and literature by the Ministry (5 new titles in 2005, 4 titles re-published in 2006) or within some partnerships (for example, partnership with UNICEF, between 2007 and 2009 – publishing the textbooks for Romani language and literature for the 5th through 8th grades).

d. The continual cultivation or the Roma language, history and tradition in the extra-curricular system

  • yearly organizing a National competition for Romani (ten editions, organized between 2000-2009) and rewarding some 200-250 Roma children who have obtained good results in the competition by offering them a place in the National Contest for Romani Language and Creation which is held at the seaside and which is organized and financed by the Ministry and by its partners.

  • financing and organizing the first two editions of the Festival of the Roma parade and traditional costumes (170 participants, 6 days, in August 2007 and August 2008, at Costinesti, with financing provided by MECI, UNICEF, the Roma Party and Save the Children Organization) and continuing this festival in 2009, with financing from the MECI and from its partners;

  • partially financing and organizing the National Competition entitled “Diversitatea” (Diversity), within the school system, in 2007, 2008 and 2009, with several initiating partners and co-financing partners (PER, DRI, Divers);

  • organizing, since April 2008, of the National Competition for Roma history and traditions, for pupils and high-school students who study these disciplines. Editions: 2008 (Târgovişte, 1st edition, financing organizations: MECI, the Centre for Roma Studies – University of Bucharest, Niro, Amare Rromentza, Sastipen, etc.; Timişoara MECI, 2nd edition, financing organizations: MECI, ISJ Timiş, Amare Rromentza, etc).

III. The main actions / programmes that the MECI and its partners have executed, especially in 2007, 2008, 2009

A. The permanent projects / activities that the Ministry performs every year by using its own financing:

  • The Ministry’s financing the distinct places for Roma pupils who have finished the 8th grade, for admission in the 9th grade in high-schools and in vocational schools (2,000 – 3,000 places every year).

  • Financing the distinct places for young Roma who finish high-school, with the purpose to facilitate their admission in different academic institutions (398-493 places were granted every year; for the academic year 2007-2008, 454 places were granted and 493 places were granted for the either of the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010).

  • Maintaining and financing the 42 jobs of inspectors on the Roma / minority educational problems within the structure of the county school inspectorates.

  • The current financing by the county school inspectorates of more than 440 jobs for Roma language and history teachers, for Roma teachers who teach these subjects in schools (3-4 weekly hours / Romani language and literature classes – for 1st through 12th grades, respectively an hour on Roma history and traditions, scheduled for 6thth grades). and 7

  • Yearly financing by the Minister of the National Romani Language School Contest (10 editions organized between 2000 and 2009), for 104 participants every year.

  • On October 6, 2005, the initiation, within the PHARE programme, of the “Second Chance” Programme and the extension of such programme in the school year 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, also ensuring teachers’ payment (1st – 4th grades and 5th – 10th

    grades).

  • Financing some school kindergartens for preparation for the 1st grade for Roma children who did not attend pre-school education (every year between 100 and 200 pupils; between 2004 and 2007, the numbers of such institutions increased to more than 400, as reported in the summer of 2008, both those initiated by DGILMRP and those initiated by PHARE).

  • Completing the set of curricula for Romani language and Roma history (at present, we have all the curricula for 1st – 12th grade, as revised in 2009).

  • Financing the re-publishing of textbooks for Roma language and history (6 titles every year).

  • Continuing financing for the 5 classes mentioned below, where subjects are only taught in Romani.

  • Continuing the implementation, in partnership with the Amare Rromentza organization and UNICEF, of the bilingual Romani-Romanian curriculum in kindergartens with Roma pupils of Sarulesti  (Calarasi County, 2005-2008) and Ciurea (Iasi, 2007-2008), but also extending the teaching in the Romani mother tongue at pre-school level, by using the bilingual teaching methods used in other kindergartens (as mentioned above).

  • Mainitaining financing a free snack for all children – both Roma and non-Roma – in pre-school and elementary education and also improving the menu.

  • Continuing financing, for the academic year 2008-2009, for the Roma sophomores and juniors, who take part in the long-distance PHARE Programme for training at the UBB of Cluj Napoca and who intend to become elementary school teachers and kindergarten teachers (specialty PPP).

B. Programmes and measures taken by the MECI and which help forming and co-opting Roma human resources in the educational system and in society

1. Human resources for the organization and functioning of the educational system for Roma

  • Maintaining two jobs meant for people who are to represent the Roma-related problems at educational level within MECI – DGILMRP (General Direction for Education in the Minorities’ Language and its Relation with the Parliament);

  • Maintaining 42 jobs for inspectors on the problems of Roma schooling within the structure of county school inspectorates (since 1999 and until present);

  • Forming and co-opting Roma mediators for the problems associated to Roma schooling (180 people already trained – with financing from ANR and MECI, in 2007 – another 55 school mediators were trained in 2009, with financing from the UNICEF representatives in Romania).  Between 2003 and 2009, MECI has trained more than 600 Roma school mediators (within the PHARE Programme of MECI for under-privileged categories, at DGILMRP level or as a result of the partnerships signed between this Direction and ANR and the representatives of UNICEF).

  • Yearly financing of 420 – 440 jobs for Roma language and history teachers, for Roma teachers who teach these disciplines in schools, in more than 260 schools of 40 counties.

  • Training more than 80 methodists for Roma language, history, traditions and schooling (1-6 per county), with financing from MECI and from partners (2005 – PER and MECI, 2006 – Romani CRISS and MECI, 2007 and 2008 – MECI).

2. Creating the future Roma human resources for society

  • Yearly allotting a number of distinct places for Roma pupils who have finished the 8th grade, for admission in the 9th grade in high-schools and in vocational schools (2,000 – 3,000 places every year). The programme was initiated in 1990 and it was developped starting with the year 2000;

  • Yearly granting a number of distinct places for young Roma studenst who have finished high-school, for admission in various academic institutions (the programme was initiated in the academic year 1992-1993 and it was extended starting with the academic year 1998/1999). For the academic year  2007-2008, 454 distinct places were granted and 493 places were granted for each of the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010).

3. Continual and initial training of Roma and non-Roma human resources who work with Roma children and pupils

The most important directions for actions, in the calendar year 2007 and 2008 pertained to:

The initial and continual training of Roma teachers

A. The initial training of 40 teachers per year for Romani language (3 modules, each lasting for 7 days)

b. Perfecting the activity of 60 methodists for the methodics of teaching Romani language and history (6 days / year)

c. Perfecting the activity of 60 Romani history teachers (6 days / year)

d. Perfecting the activity of 260 Romani language teachers (6 days / year)

e. Perfecting the activity of 42 inspectors on Roma schooling (5 stages / year, 2 days each)

f. Training 42 county trainers in educational rromanipen (6 days / year)

g. Training 235 Roma teachers on actively participative methods in 2008.

h. Training 62 trainers for the “Second Chance” programme for Romani language, at the level of each county (3 days / year)

i. Training 180 Roma school mediators, outside the Phare Programms, together with ANR (National Agency for Roma). Other 55 Roma school mediators will be trained by the UNICEF representatives in 2009.

The continual training of non-Roma teachers

Both in 2007 and 2008, 420 non-Roma teachers were trained; they work with Roma pupils and children, from the educational rromanipen perspective, in 10-13 stages / year, each lasting 2 days

Besides these programmes, in 2008 MECI and CNCD managed to finance the training of 200 Roma and non-Roma teachers, who teach groups where there are Roma children, in the spirit of non-discrimination and non-segregation (MECI ensured transportation and CNCD financed the accommodation and meals.

For these programmes, MECI granted the amount of 583,543,240 lei/yearly for 2007 and 2008. These programmes did not include the expenses made for each Roma pupil registered in the programmes “Milk and cookie”, “Writing materials”, “Money for high-school”, etc, or the expenses made by MECI and ISJ for the programmes organized for Roma and under-privileged categories within the educational PHARE Programme.

C. MECI educational PHARE Programme, who addressed the access to education of under-privileged categories, insisting upon the schooling of Roma children, had five stages of development:

-          1st stage (PHARE 2001, €8.33 million): September 2002–2004.10 counties (Arad, Bucharest –  Sector 5, Buzău, Călăraşi, Cluj, Dâmboviţa, Galaţi, Giurgiu, Hunedoara, Vaslui); The Programme was performed in 74 schools and kindergartens with a  preponderently Roma school population of

-          2nd stage (PHARE 2003, €11.33 million): October 2004 – March 2007. The Programme was extended to some other 116 school units of 12 new counties (Alba, Bacău, Brăila, Covasna, Harghita, Ialomiţa, Iaşi, Maramureş, Mureş, Neamţ, Sibiu, Vâlcea) and in 8 resource-schools of 3 counties of the older Programme (Arad, Cluj and Dâmboviţa).

-          3rd stage (PHARE 2004, €5 million): January 16, 2006 – November 2007. The Programme included school units of 20 new counties (Argeş, Bihor, Bistriţa, Botoşani, Braşov, Caraş Severin, Constanţa, Dolj, Gorj, Ilfov, Mehedinţi, Olt, Prahova, Sălaj, Satu Mare, Suceava, Teleorman, Timiş, Tulcea, Vrancea) and school units of 7 counties included in the 1st stage (Bucharest – Sector 5, Buzău, Călăraşi, Galaţi, Giurgiu, Hunedoara, Vaslui).

-          4th stage (PHARE 2005, €9.33 million ): 2007-2008, only the counties of the 27 counties included in the 3rd stage and which won the competition on projects (at national level, there were only 5 counties which were not included in the mega-programme).

-          5th stage (PHARE 2006, €1.5 million ): 2008-2009, study on the impact and monitoring.

Generally speaking, the programme includes educational activities organized in favour of Roma children and Roma and in favour of other categories of under-privileged children. Such activities are of the type:

  • granting, between September 2003 and 2007, a number of 55 scholarships for Roma youngsters living in the Roma communities of the 10 counties of the 1st stage of the Programme and where there were schools with Roma pupils; the scholarships were granted in order to allow them to be trained as susbstitute teachers for Romani language, at the CREDIS College for long-distance education – within the University of Bucharest. Starting with the academic year  2006-2007, another 38 such training scholarships were allotted at the UBB of Cluj Napoca; starting with the academic year  2007-2008, another 20 new scholarships were allotted at the UBB of Cluj Napoca.

  • including Roma youngsters who were living in the communities with schools included in the project in the educational system (as untrained teachers who are currently training) with the purpose of teaching the additional Roma curriculum (Romani language and / or Roma history and traditions, at the level of the 3-4 weekly hours);

  • including and maintaining Roma school mediators who were trained during the different stages of the Programme (64 Roma school mediators for the schools of the 10 counties included in the Project in 2003-2004, and also training some other 103 school mediators for the new needs of the Programme – the 2nd stage, in 2005 and 2006). Subsequently training another 280 Roma school mediators for the schools included in the extended project.

  • training non-Roma and Roma teachers who work with Roma children and training Roma and non-Roma inspectors;

  • providing courses for the school recuperation of the Roma community, for children, youngsters and adults, within the schools included in the Programme (mainly teaching them how to read and write and / or finishing elementary school, respectively lower secondary education (as the case may be, as the component was also accompanied by a programme meant to allow the Roma community to learn an occupation or a trade) by means of the “Second Chance” Programme, which was adopted by the Ministry of Education and Research on October 6, 2005, tested in the school year 2005-2006, and then continued and extended in the school year 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009);

  • continuing and extending the structures for the training of Roma pre-schoolers who did not attend pre-school educational system in a summer kindergarten (3-4 weeks in August-September, before children were to beging the 1st grade);

  • organizing “schools for Roma mothers” inside the Roma communities that lived near the schools included in the project;

  • elaborating educational materials (some of them bilingual, written in Romanian and in Romani) for pre-schoolers and elementary school pupils, but also elaborating textbooks and guides for the students and teachers involved in the “Second Chance” programmes for Romani and for all of the disciplines that are studied;

  • ensuring a modest component for the rehabilitation of the school space (parts of the school, classrooms, annexes, bathrooms, water connection) and for equipping the schools (furniture, didactic materials, equipments, machines, if necessary a means of transportation for children, etc.), most of the times by persuading the representative of the town hall to ensure additional equipment, etc.

D. Strategic measures and directions initiated by the MECI within the special strategic partner with the UNICEF representatives in Romania

Activities performed:

- Editing educational materials and auxiliary textbooks for Roma language, history and traditions (2001-2005, 16 titles);

- Granting scholarships for covering education-related taxes for Roma youngsters who taught Romani language in schools and who attended the long-distance courses of the section for “Substitute teachers – Romani language” of the University of Bucharest (2001-2005, 117-220 scholarships every year);

- Financing the summer schools organized for teaching Roma language and history (2001-2005);

- Patenting the “summer kindergarted”, organized for children who are to beging the 1st grade (2001);

- Training non-Roma teachers who work with Roma pupils and children in educational rromanipen (= the group of Roma fundamental values), between 2004 and 2006;

- ZEP Testing (testing the areas for priority education);

- Meetings of inspectors and methodists pertaining to Roma schooling (2003, 2005, 2006).

Between 2005 and 2009, in partnership with UNICEF and due to the financing granted by UNICEF, the Ministry also continued a series of programmes such as:

  • The editing, in 2006 and 2007, of two work for high-school students and adults, on Roma deportation (Roma tears, which included confessions of Roma surviors, and an auto-biographical novel entitled Cu moartea’n ochi – Translation: With Death in My Eye and destined for Roma and non-roma pupils);

  • The editing, between 2007 and 2009, of 4 textbooks for Romani language and literature for 5th – 8th grade;

  • Continuing to train 55 Roma students, every summer between 2006 and 2009, within summer school organized for learning Romani language and the methodics of teaching Romani language; the purpose was to enable these students to teach Romani language in schools;

  • Partial support for the Festival of the Roma traditional costumes and dance (the summer of 2007 and the suumer of 2008);

  • Training 55 Roma school mediators in the summer of 2009;

  • Sending some specialist of MECI to participate as delegates of the UNICEF representatives in Romania in an international reunion, with the purpose of presenting the Romanian experience in the field of Roma education.

E. Measures taken and activities performed by MECI during the permanent collaboration with various non-governmental, governmental and inter-governmental organizations

Besides the strategic measures and directions materialized in the programmes mentioned above and performed by the Ministry or in partnership with UNICEF in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, the Minister continued to collaborate with several governmental, non-governmental or inte-governmental institutions, such as: Romani CRISS, within some programmes addressed to Roma pupils, teachers and methodists and during the structural funds programme; Roma Party (in 2006, the Roma Party partially financed the National Romani Language Competition; it ensured the camp on Romani language and creation for Roma students who participated in the National competition on Romani language; it financed a workshop with the inspectors and methodists on Roma schooling; and in 2007 it granted 40 scholarships for Roma students who attend long-distance courses in order to become trained as Romani teachers; it co-financed the first Parade of the Roma traditional costumes and dance, etc.); PER – for the training of Roma and non-Roma teachers (2006-2007); the performance of the National school programme entitled “Diversitatea” (together with MECI, in 2007, 2008, 2009); it granted support for the issue of normative documents on implementing diversity (in 2007, 2008), etc.; CRCR Cluj Napoca (the programme for critical thinking for Roma teachers and for Roma students attending the long-distance courses of the CREDIS College between 2006 and 2009, the Scholarship Programme for Roma High-School Students (September 2007 – 2009); Timişoara Intercultural Institute (training of non-Roma teachiers who work with Roma children, by means of on-line and face-to-face courses); “Amare Rromentza” Organization (for the programme pertaining to the bilingual kindergartens; for the financing and training of school mediators and pedagogical assistants; for the programme pertaining to the evaluation of the strategic measures of MECI between 1990 and 2008, etc.); University of Bucharest – CREDIS College; UBB of Cluj Napoca and the PIR Programme – for the training of Roma teachers; ANR (common visits for documenting and guidance inside Roma communities, a common programme for training Roma school mediators, a structural-funded scholarship programme, etc.); “Împreună” Agency (in programmes performed at local level and in the debates / speech craft programme addressed to non-Roma high-school students and addressing themes that were in favour of the Roma community); “Ruhama” Foundation of Oradea (expertise in organizing the summer kindergarten for children who are to begin the 1st grade); CNCD (for the programme for training in the spirit of non-discrimination, addressed to non-Roma and Roma teachers who perform their activity with Roma children and pupils – 2008, 2009); “Save the Children” Organization, starting with 2009, within the structural-funded programme “Roma children are preparing for kindergarten!”; OSI Budapest (for the scholarship programme in the medical profile); CCDs of Bacău, Bihor, Braşov, Bucharest, Buzău, Caraş Severin, Constanţa, Ialomiţa, Ilfov, Neamţ, Satu Mare, Vâlcea etc., for the training, in 2007 and 2008, of more than 3,000 Roma and non-Roma teachers.

F. Between 2006-2009, the Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation has continued the educational projects / activities dedicated for Roma and included in governmental normative documents

The normative documents – Government’s Decision no. 430/2001 (subsequently turned into Government’s Decision no. 522/2006) include all educational activities for Roma organized by the Ministry of Education and which have proven to be useful and efficient between 1990-2001; these documents can be found, in an extended form, in the general plan for measures drawn up within the context of the Decade dedicated to Roma inclusion.

G. Legislative initiatives pertaining to education for the Roma and for the minorities

The Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation was permanently preoccupied by the legislative adjustment to the specificity of the education of the Roma minority and for the other national minorities, in the spirit of cultivating diversity in the educational effort (from an ethnic, historic, gender-related, physical, religious perspective) to promote inter-cultural dialoge and to promote equal opportunities (eliminating discriminations, segregations in education, etc.).

DGILMRP has initiated and supported the issuing, between 2006 and 2009, of a number of 19 normative documents (which are mentioned in the part entitled b. Synthetic presentation).

IV. New directions for action in the field of Equal access to education (mainly referring to the situation of Roma communities)

In 2008 and 2009, we have continued to initiate programmes that envisage the promotion of a real access to education for vulnerable groups (persons who face a high level of poverty, people who are the victims of discrimination, etc.) by drawing to the educational system of all kinds the segment of Roma and non-Roma pre-schoolers and pupils who do not or have not attended school, who are of the age when they should go to school (6-16 years of age), but also to draw youngsters and adults from under-privileged communities, with the purpose of enabling them to achieve basic school competences and/or to learn a trade for the labour market.

In this context, on the one hand we are continuing the Educational PHARE Programme addressed to under-privileged categories (which was initiated in September 2002, generalized at a national level and continues by means of county strategies and by the 5th stage of monitoring of the entire PHARE mega-programme), and on the other hand, MECI is a partner in several structural-funded projects, together with various applicant partners.

At present (in 2009), the General Direction for Education in the Minorities’ Language and its Relation with the Parliament is a partner and beneficiary of three educational projects organized in favour of Roma children, pupils and youngsters, financed from European structural funds, as follows:

  1. The ANR project entitled “The education of Roma children – the way to a stable job”;

  2. The Romani CRISS project entitled “Strategic steps for improving the access to education for Roma children”;

  3. 3. The project of “Save the Children” Organization, entitled “Roma children are preparing for kindergarten!”.

At the same time, DGILMRP – MECI and its partner, the Roma “Ruhama” Foundation of Oradea are to perform, in the summer of 2009, the strategic Programme entitled “Everybody goes to kindergarten! Everybody goes to school in the 1st grade!”, with integrated components meant to increase access to education and the educational level of the children from under-privileged communities, mainly Roma population (a mega-programme addressed to Roma and non-Roma pre-schoolers who either did not go to kindergarten and will go to school in the 1st grade and who are supported morally, financially and from the educational point of view; or who abandoned school while in the 1st and/or 2nd grade and still are of the legal age allowing them to be reintegrated in school, by attending the courses of the same grade).

C. Continuing the programmes addressed to minority pupils in the inter-cultural spirit

The Ministry and its partners are organizing:

-         The Festival of the Roma traditional costumes and dance, in order to emphasize the Roma folkloric diversity; 180 pupils and accompanying teachers attended the festival in 2007, 2008 and 2009;

-         The national competition entitled “Diversitatea” (Translation – Diversity), with the yearly participation of 8,000 pupils belonging to all of the minorities (in 2007, 2008, 2009).

-   Besides the textbooks on the history and traditions of each minority, who are taught to 6th and 7th graders, within the context of the Order of MECT no.  1529/18 July 2007 on the diversity development in the national curriculum (published in the National Journal of Romania no. 670/1st of October 2007), PER, together with DIVERS and with the representatives organizations of minorities and MECI have edited, in 2008, an auxiliary material on the history of minorities, to be used by History teachers and in 2009 will publish a curriculum and a similar textbook to be used by high-school students, within the optional course on the history of minorities.

- The performance of public debates (speech craft) of Roma high-school students on Roma-related themes, a joint project of MECI, ARDOR, “Impreuna” Agency, the “Catavencu” Agency for Press Monitoring, etc. (public speeches delivered on Roma Day, the 8th of April 2009, the final national session organized on June 1st, 2009, on Children’s Day, etc.)

- Continuing the campaign “Read with me!” supported by the county school inspectorates (ISJ).

Cantece in limba rromani, cantate de Gheorghe Sarau

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe octombrie 2, 2009

Gasiti aici 13 cantece interpretate de Gheorghe Sarau, cu orchestra timisoreana Purane gilja

edu.ro/invrrom_b51.htm

Auditie placuta!

Acestea chiar sunt cuvinte rrome? – I-

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe iulie 7, 2009

Ce vorbim? Astea chiar sunt vorbe “ţigăneşti”?

S-a dus vremea când toată lumea credea că mişto vine din germ. “mit Stock”, adică “cu baston”, care va sa zică, “frumos, bine, şic”. Între timp, mai cu seamă după 1990, când, “la vedere”, începe să se studieze şi să se cultive limba rromani, o seamă de “enigme“ lexicale sunt dezlegate. În anul 1966, studiul de 92 pagini publicat de marele lingvist Alexandru Graur în anul 1934 (v. “Buletin Linguistique”, II (1934), p. 108 – 200), dedicat împrumuturilor în limba română din limba rromani, avea să fie revizuit şi îmbogăţit de ilustrul turcolog Vladimir Drimba, dar, din păcate, oprit de la difuzare. Abia în anul 1992, articolul său avea sa fie “re”publicat în aceeaşi revistă, “Studii şi Cercetări Lingvistice”, XLIII /1992/, nr. 2 (p. 173 – 190) şi nr. 3 (p. 253-278).

Dar, dincolo de decodările oferite de către cei doi lingvişti, argoul românesc conservă încă zeci de mostre de sorginte rromă, am putea spune, inedite. Iată de ce, considerăm utilă trecerea în revistă a unor astfel de cuvinte intrate din limba rromani în română.

Dacă la nivelul cuvintelor, multor elemente româneşti le-a fost desluşită originea rromă (a se vedea arhicunoscutul barosan “eşti mare”, perceput ca “om mare, realizat, cu dare de mînă, om influent”), pentru alte cuvinte din argoul românesc există încă necunoscute. Pe de altă parte, chiar dacă, uneori, se “bănuieşte” originea rromă a unora dintre acestea (bulit, paradit, soilit etc.), puţini vorbitori care le utilizează ar putea să le explice  provenienţa. Cu alte cuvinte, la origine rrome, ne-am obişnuit într-atât de mult, încât cu greu am putea crede că ele sunt, într-adevăr, rrome. Aici am putea aminti, de pildă, numele de familie “româneşti?” şi poreclele, care s-au configurat în jurul cuvintelor rrome – nucleu kar “organ sexual masculin” şi bul “fund, anus”: Bulache, Buleaua, Buleandră, Carabulea, Carbarău, Marolicaru (cf. marro, manro, mangro, mandro “pâine”; li “;şi”), Tilicaru (cf. tikno, tikni”mic, mică”) sau în contextul altora (v. rr. mol “vin” şi numele de familie Molan ş. a.). Să notăm că bul a generat cuvinte în argoul românesc şi la nivelul substantivelor comune: bulan, bulău ş.a.

Dimpotrivă, alte cuvinte devenite recent româneşti sunt considerate rrome, deşi nu au legătură cu limba rromani (v., de ex., naşpa).

Şi la nivelul expresiilor, auzim, de multe ori, expresii “româneşti”, care, de fapt, sunt calcuri ori împrumuturi din limba rromani: a da cu vastul “a fura” (v. lb. rr. vast “mână”), Ce mi-e Tutea, ce mi-e Mandea, adică “(îmi) este totuna”, “tot un drac” – aici Tutea şi Mandea vin din formele de locativ ale pronumelor personale tu (tute “la tine”), respectiv me (mande “la mine”), pentru situaţii de tipul “Ce mi-e la tine, ce mi-e la mine”. Aici, încadrăm, evident, şi expresiile construite cu forma de locativ mande “la mine, în mine”: “Păi, tu îi spui astea lui Mandea?!”

Mukh les - ceea ce în limba rromani înseamnă “lasă-l!” – a dat în limba română “mucles!”, “taci!, atenţie!”. Pronumele personal vov “el”, în acuzativ les, se referă la “ea”, la “gură” (muj, în rromani, fiind de gen masculin, “el”). Într-o exprimare eliptică, trebuie să observăm că este vorba de Las-o! Tacă-ţi gura!, ceea ce, este de presupus că, într-o anumită conjunctură, “observatorii” neştiutori ai limbii rromani, s-au grăbit să decodeze prin “lasă-l (în pace)”, dar, de fapt, mesajul era: “Las-o! (Lasă gura!, Taci!). Se observă şi o variantă “feminină”, mecla (cf. rr. mekh la “las-o!”), dar este posibil ca raţionamentul eliptic să fi fost altul: “las-o [că este urâtă!], devenit şi “uite ce meclă are!”.

Ne apropiem, astfel, de “mui” (cf. rr. muj “gură; faţă”), care a generat în limba română o serie de cuvinte, sintagme şi expresii: muian “faţă urâtă”, muie, la muie, muist, muistăetc.

Unele cuvinte româneşti au apărut şi ca rezultat al confuziilor de sensuri din limba rromani. De pildă, în cazul cuvântului românesc caraliu, vorbitorii rromi de limbă rromani uneori au perceput cuvântul rrom hanralo [scris şi xanralo] “gardian, om al legii dotat cu hanro (“spadă, sabie”) în contextul altui cuvânt rrom (v. vulg. rr. karalo).

Dincolo de “şocul” desluşiri unor astfel de sensuri, dicolo de pudoare, credem că este timpul să conştientizăm şi să acceptăm sensul cuvintelor argotice româneşti, în cazul nostru, provenite din limba rromani.

18 ianuarie 2006                                                                                 Gheorghe Sarău

Astea sunt cuvinte rrome?

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe iulie 7, 2009

Ce vorbim? Astea chiar sunt vorbe “ţigăneşti”?  – II -

Caştaliu, caştalie, caştalii

Auzim, adesea, la rromii vorbitori de limbă rromani, formulări de tipul „Lasă-l, că este caştaliu! Nu ştie rromanes!”. Cum s-a ajuns la o astfel de asociere, vom vedea în cele ce urmează. După cum se ştie, în limba rromani există cuvîntul kaśt „lemn” (iar la unii rromi, care au pierdut cuvântul vechi rukh „copac, pom” are şi acest înţeles). Cu sufixul responsabil pentru „aspectul”, „dotarea, înzestrarea cu ceva”, anume –valo (-i, -e, -e), se formează, pornindu-se de la substantivul masc. kaśt „lemn”, adjectivul kaśtvalo „lemnos, cu aspectul lemnului”, formă care – prin frecventa trecere a lui –v- în semiconsoana –w- │u│- a fost percepută kaśtwalokaśtualo│ şi, mai departe, cu trecerea timpului, a rămas forma foarte răspândită, kaśtalo (lucru care, de pildă, în alte situaţii nu s-a întâmplat: barvalo, ratvalo etc.). În treacăt fie spus, însuşi sufixul –valo merită o discuţie aparte, el fiind la origine substantiv, cu sensul de „câştig, profit; posesie; dotare” şi care, prin gramaticalizare, a devenit sufix derivativ (v. cuvântul din întrebarea „Kaj si murro valo?” / „ Care este câştigul meu?”, apărută în comunicarea personală avută cu rromul căldărar Tache Lepădatu, în anul 2002, la Lacul Sărat (Brăila), subiectul fiind originar din zona buzoiană).

Întorcându-ne la cuvintele kaśtalo (sg., m.) / kaśtale (pl., m.), kaśtali (sg., f.) / kaśtale (pl., f.), care, din perspectivă morfologică, sunt adjective, vom observa că, în afara primului sens menţionat, cel de „lemnos, cu aspectul lemnului etc.”, prin schimbarea valorii gramaticale, aceste adjective trec în substantive şi capătă noi sensuri: kaśtalo „lemnar; dulgher, cioplitor în lemn, tâmplar” (s.m., sg.) / kaśtale „lemnari; dulgheri, cioplitori în lemn, tâmplari” (s.m, pl.), respectiv, corespondentele feminine kaśtali (s.f., sg.,) / kaśtală (s.f., pl.).

Dar evoluţia sensurilor nu se opreşte aici, deoarce kaśtalo (s.m., sg.) / kaśtale (s.m., pl.), kaśtali (s.f., sg.) / kaśtale (s.f., pl.) au dobândit semnificaţii noi, anume „nevorbitor al limbii rromani” (s.m., sg.) / „nevorbitori ai limbii rromani” (s.m., pl.), respectiv „nevorbitoare de limbă rromani” (s.f., sg. şi pl.).

Cine sunt, totuşi, aceste persoane nevorbitoare de limbă rromani şi în care context a apărut aceast nou sens pentru, de-acum, substantivele kaśtalo, kaśtale, kaśtali, kaśtală? Noul sens are legătură cu grupurile de „băieşi” (denumire ce face trimiteri la cuvintele de provenienţă latinească şi / sau maghiară ce desemnează „mina”, „puţurile de extracţie minieră, auriferă etc.” şi profesia de „mineri; culegători de metale rare etc.” –  în arealul transilvănean, bănăţean, dar şi în zone din Croaţia – v. comunitatea Mănăştur (sic!) – ori din Ungaria, Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Grecia etc.) -,  respectiv, cu cele de „rudari”, denumire echivalentă, uzitată în sudul şi estul României.

În România, aflăm de la redutabilul românist, Ion Calotă de la Universitatea din Craiova, că băieşii au fost menţionaţi în Transilvania la începutul sec. al XVII-lea (Ion Calota, Rudarii din Oltenia, Craiova: Editura Sibila, 272 p. + 48 p., 1995).

Ce au astăzi în comun toţi „băieşii” şi „rudarii”? În primul rând, limba, evident!. Dar care limbă? Nu limba rromani, căci aceştia sunt românofoni (vorbitori ai unuia / unor graiuri româneşti), în ciuda răspândirii lor enclavizate în toată zona menţionată. Este de înţeles că grupuri de ludari şi de băieşi sunt întâlnite, ca efect al migraţiei, şi în alte zone ale lumii, îndeosebi în America de Sud. Rudarii / băieşii se îndeletniceau cu adunatul firicelelor de aur din prundişul râurilor aurifere, în vecinătatea minelor, având aşezări de-a lungul apelor, acolo unde, pe timp frumos, de la Sf. Gheorghe până la Sf. Dumnitru, îşi puteau exercita această meserie. De bună seamă, pe timp nefavorabil, invers, de la Sf. Dumitru la Sf. Gheorghe, se asista la o a doua lor îndeletnicire de refugiu, cea de prelucrători ai lemnului („lemnari; dulgheri, cioplitori în lemn, tâmplari”) ori ai arbuştilor, ai arborilor sau ai plantelor erbacee acvatice ce creşteau pe marginea apelor (salcie / răchită, papura, plopul, în general arbori de esenţă moale). Aşa au apărut profesii adiacente, din seria celor exercitate, de regulă iarna, ca: lingurari (confecţioneri de linguri din lemn, blidari (confecţioneri de străchini, blide sau vase din lemn), fusari (confecţioneri de fuse pentru îndrugatul lânei sau al bumbacului), corfari / coşniţari (confecţioneri de coşuri, coşniţe împletite din răchită, din diversele tipuri de sălcii, confecţioneri de paporniţe – împletite din papură), rogojinari (confecţioneri de rogojini din papură) etc.

Prin cioplitul lemnului, băieşii / rudarii executau mese scunde cu formă rotundă, cu trei picioare, a căror înălţime nu depăşea 30-35 cm, la care se servea masa (evident şi populaţia majoritară utiliza aceste mese), ele fiind însoţite de scaune de aceeaşi dimensiune şi formă (rotunde, cu trei picioare). Aceştia meşteşugeau, de asemenea, albii din scorbura unor copaci, pentru spălat şi scăldat, coveţi / căpisteri, jgheaburi la fîntîni, pentru adăpatul animalelor, cioplite, de asemnea din trunchiul copacilor, – de aici denumirile de covătari -, uneori roţi de lemn pentru care, căruţe, trăsuri, pentru fântâni – de aici denumirea de rotari -, lăzi de zestre, solniţe, suporturile de lemn / „caprele” pentru albia de spălat, jucării din lemn pentru copii etc. etc.

Vorbitorii de limbă rromani i-au denumit pe toţi aceştia, trimiţând la a doua lor profesie – kaśtale „lemnari, dulgheri etc.”- mai cu seamă când prima ocupaţie, cea de bază, de culegători de metale din râuri, a devenit nerentabilă.

Cum însă aceştia sunt nevorbitori de limba rromani, al treilea sens devine cel mai circulat astăzi, cu accepţiunea de „persoană care nu vorbeşte limba rromani”, fiind, prin extindere, atribuită nu numai rudarilor / băieşilor, dar şi unor grupuri de rromi ori persoane rrome care nu vorbesc această limbă, deşi familiile lor au vorbit-o cândva. Şi, aşa, descifrăm cuvintele des întâlnite, caştaliu, caştalie, caştalii…

conf. dr. Gheorghe Sarău                                                        20 iunie 2009

Bine ati venit

Publicat în Uncategorized prin gheorghesarau pe iulie 7, 2009

Dragi de toti!

Iata, ne revedem si pe blog!

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